ENR 1  General Rules and Procedures

ENR 1.1  General rules

1  Genral

The air traffic rules and procedures applicable to air traffic in Somalia territory conform to Annexes 2 and 11 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation and to those portions of the Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services applicable to aircraft and of the Regional Supplementary Procedures applicable to the AFI Region, except for the differences listed in GEN 1.7.

2  Minimum safe height

The minimum safe height is the height at which neither an unnecessary noise disturbance nor unnecessary hazards to persons and property in the event of an emergency landing are to be feared. Except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except by permission from SCAA, Aircraft shall not be flown over the congested areas of cities,towns or settlements or over an open-air assembly of persons, unless at such a height as will permit. however, the following ICAO standards applies in Somali airspace:

  1. over cities, other densely populated areas and assemblies of persons, this height shall be at least 300 m (1 000 ft) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 m,
  2. and elsewhere at least 150 m (500 ft) above ground or water.
  3. Gliders and balloons may be operated below a height of 150 m if necessary for the kind of operation and if danger to persons and property is not to be feared.
  4. Aircraft shall not be flown below bridges and similar constructions nor below overhead lines and antennas.
  5. For flights conducted for special purposes, the local aeronautical authority may grant exemptions.

3  Dropping of objects

The dropping or spraying of objects or other substances out of or from aircraft is prohibited. This does not apply to ballast in the form of water or fine sand, fuel, tow ropes, tow banners and similar objects if dropped or discharged at places where no danger to persons or property exists. The local aeronautical authority may grant exemptions to the interdiction if no danger to persons or property exists.

The dropping of mail is controlled by the Postal Authority or by the designated unit, in agreement with the aeronautical authority.

4  Acrobatic flying

Acrobatic flights are only permitted in visual meteorological conditions and with the explicit consent of SCAMA. Acrobatic flights are prohibited at heights of less than 450 m (1 500 ft) as well as over cities, other densely populated areas, assemblies of persons, and airports. Somali Civil Aviation Authority may grant exemptions in individual cases. Acrobatic flights conducted in the vicinity of aerodromes without an ATS unit require special permission in addition to the air traffic control clearance.

5  Towing and advertising flights

No aircraft or other object shall be towed by an aircraft, except in accordance with requirements prescribed by SCAA. Advertising flights with towed objects require permission from the local authority in the area in which the applicant is a resident. Permission shall be granted only if:
  1. the pilot holds the rating for towing;
  2. the aircraft is equipped with a calibrated barograph for recording altitudes during flight;
  3. during the proposed flight not more than three aircraft are flying in formation, in which case a distance of at least 60 m shall be maintained both between the towed object of the preceding aircraft and the following aircraft, as well as between the aircraft;

6  Times and units of measurement

The international system of units and the non- international units’ system of measurement used within the Somali FIR shall be according to the provisions of table 3.2 and 3.3 of ICAO annex 5. Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the prescribed units of measurement shall be applied to flight operations.

7  Airspace structure

For the performance of the flight information service and the alerting service, SCAA with the Minister of Transport establishes flight information regions which are published in the AIP. Within the flight information regions, SCAA establishes the controlled and uncontrolled airspace according to the extent of the air traffic services maintained there, on the basis of the classification described in section ENR 1.4. Within controlled airspace, VFR flights may be prohibited completely or partly by the air traffic services with regard to limitation of space and time if urgently required by the degree of intensity of air traffic subject to air traffic control.

8  Prohibited areas and flight restrictions

Establish prohibited and restricted areas, are published in the AIP, ENR 5.1 unidentified aircraft in these areas will be intercepted.

9  Cloud flights with gliders

Cloud flights with gliders may be permitted by the air traffic services if the safety of air traffic can be maintained by appropriate measures. Conditions may be attached to the permission.

10  Take-offs and landings of aeroplanes, rotorcraft, airships, powered gliders, gliders and parachutists outside aerodromes admitted for them

For take-offs and landings of aeroplanes, rotorcraft and airships, permission from the appropriate local aeronautical authority is required. For take-offs of powered gliders and gliders outside designated aerodromes, permission from the appropriate local aeronautical authority is required; however, for landings of powered gliders and gliders on a cross-country flight, permission is not required. This is to be applied analogously to landings of parachutists outside designated aerodromes.

The authority granting permission may ask the applicant to produce evidence of the consent of the terrain owner or of other entitled parties.

11  Ascents of balloons, kites, self-propelled flying models and flying bodies

Generally, the operation of balloons shall be subjected to the provisions of annex 2; appendix 5. The ascent of a manned free balloon outside an aerodrome admitted for balloon ascents requires permission from the appropriate local authority.

The ascent of captive balloons is permitted only with the consent of the SCAA. For kites, this consent is required if they are held by a rope of more than 100 m (300 ft) in length. Kite ascents within the construction restriction.

zone of airports as well as within a distance of less than 3 km from the boundary of airfields and gliding sites are prohibited. Somali Civil Aviation Authority (SCAA) may grant exemptions. The mooring rope of captive balloons and kites, the ascent of which requires permission, shall be marked, at spacing’s of 100 m (300 ft), by red/white flags during the day, and by red and white lights at night, in such a manner that it is recognizable to other aircraft from all directions.

The ascent of flying models of less than 5 kg total weight requires no permission, with the exception of rocket propelled models. The operation of flying models with combustion engines within a distance of less than 1.5 km from housing areas is permitted only with the consent of the local authority. The same applies to flying models of all types within a distance of less than 1.5 km from the boundary of aerodromes. The operation of all types of flying models on aerodromes is permitted only with the consent of the air traffic services.

12  Parachute descents

Parachute descents, other than emergency descents, shall not be made within the Somalia airspace, except under conditions prescribed by SCAA and as indicated by relevant information, advice and/or clearance from the appropriate air traffic services unit.

13  Formation flights

Aircraft shall not be flown in formation except by pre-arrangement among the pilots-in-command of the aircraft taking part in the flight and, for formation flight in controlled airspace, in accordance with conditions prescribed by the SCAA authority. The following conditions shall be adequately met:

  1. The formation operates as a single aircraft with regard to navigation and position reporting;
  2. Separation between aircraft in the flight shall be the responsibility of the flight leader and the pilots-in-command of the other aircraft in the flight and shall include periods of transition when aircraft are manoeuvring to attain their own separation within the formation and during join-up and breakaway;
  3. and a distance not exceeding 1 km (0.5 NM) laterally and longitudinally and 30 m (100Ft) vertically from the flight leader shall be maintained by each aircraft.

14  The legal liability insurance also explicitly covers the towing of objects.

The above applies to the towing of objects for other than advertising purposes and subparagraph 2) does not apply to aerial work of rotorcraft. Towing of gliders does not require permission, as the rating for towing will suffice.

For reasons of public safety or order and in particular for noise abatement, the authority granting permission may impose conditions. This authority may assign higher minimum safe heights and impose time limitations.

Advertising flights, where advertising consists only of inscriptions on the aircraft, do not require permission. Flights for advertising with acoustical means are prohibited.

15  Unlawful interference

An aircraft which is being subjected to unlawful interference shall endeavor to notify the appropriate ATS unit of this fact, any significant circumstances associated therewith and any deviation from the current flight plan necessitated by the circumstances, in order to enable the ATS unit to give priority to the aircraft and to minimize conflict with other aircraft.

Note 1: responsibility of ATS units in situations of unlawful interference is as contained in Annex 11

Note2: Guidance material for use when unlawful interference occurs, and the aircraft is unable to notify an ATS unit of this fact is as contained in Attachment B to annex 2.

Note 3: Actions to be taken by SSR, ADS-C- equipped aircraft which are being subjected to unlawful interference is as contained in Annex 11, the PANS-ATM (Doc 4444) and PANS-OPS (Doc 8168).

Note4:Actionsto taken by CPDLC-equipped aircraft which are being subjected to unlawful interference is as contained in Annex 11, the PANS-ATM (Doc 4444) and guidance material on the subject could be found in the Manual of Air Traffic Services Data Link Application (Doc 9694).

16  Interception of civil aircraft

Interception of civil aircraft, within the airspace of Somalia, shall be subjected to the provisions of ICAO annex2.

17  General rules and flight procedures are applicable in Mogadishu FIR.

  1. Aircraft are required to contact Mogadishu FIC at least ten (10) minutes prior to the estimated time over the entry point of the Mogadishu FIR.
  2. A Ten (10) minutes longitudinal separation for aircraft at the same level provided by adjacent FIRs will be maintained within Mogadishu FIR to aircraft on same tracks or crossing tracks as specified in letters of agreements/procedures.
  3. All traffic inbound from Asmara FIR are required to contact Mogadishu FIC thirty minutes (30 Min) before waypoint Lubar or Mogadishu FIR boundary and to pass their forward estimates and revert back to the appropriate ATS unit.
  4. Aircraft unable to make position reports direct to Mogadishu FIC to request ground stations or other aircraft to relay the information.
  5. Aircraft departing from airfields within Mogadishu FIR where AFIS is not provided to file airborne flight plan with the FIC as soon as airborne.
  6. Aircraft landing at airfields within Mogadishu FIR where AFIS is not provided to make position report to Mogadishu FIC before changing to unmanned aerodrome frequency 127.45 mhz.
  7. Due to HF communication difficulties at Mogadishu FIC, all aircraft with the capability of Satellite communication are requested to contact Mogadishu FIC on SATCOM, Mogadishu IMERSAT code is 466601 or on telephone lines +252-1857390, +252-1857391, +252-1857392, or +252-1857393 when transiting Mogadishu FIR.

18  Seperations

The lateral separations minima or spacing between route centre lines is 30 NM or more, therefore offsets to the right of the center line relative to the direction of the flight should be applied in tenths of a nautical mile up to a maximum of 2NM.

On maximum of 2 NM Offset is approved therefore crew should, if the aircraft is equipped with a capability, to offset in tenths of a nautical mile then randomly choose an offset position of 0.1NM or more up to 2NM right of tract.

If the aircraft is only equipped with capability to offset in a whole nautical mile then randomly choose an offset position of 1NM or 2NM right of track.

19  RVSM Airspace

Except for state Aircraft as defined in Article 2 to the Chicago Convention, only RVSM approved aircraft shall be permitted to operate in AFI RVSM airspace within Mogadishu FIR between FL290 and FL410. In addition, caution is advised that Mogadishu FIR is Class G Airspace, where only flight information services (FIS) is provided, hence pilots are required to maintain a high level of alertness when operating in Mogadishu FIR RVSM airspace and take appropriate action to ensure safety of flight by maintaining contact with Mogadishu FIC for traffic information and continuous listening watch on VHF emergency frequency 121.5 MHz and IFBP frequency 126.9 MHz at all times.