ENR 1.2  Visual flight rules

In certain conditions, pilots themselves are able to ensure the safe and expeditious flow of air traffic. Flight in such conditions is said to be under Visual Flight Rules (VFR). In other circumstances, the intervention of a ground organization is generally necessary, and flight is then said to be under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). It is on this conception of different requirements for IFR and VFR flight that the Air Traffic Services are based.
Conditions of VFR flights
  1. Except when operating as a special VFR flight, VFR flights shall be conducted so that the aircraft is flown in conditions of visibility and distance from clouds equal to or greater than those specified in Table 3-1.
  2. Except when a clearance is obtained from an air traffic control unit, VFR flights shall not take off or land at an aerodrome within a control zone, or enter the aerodrome traffic zone or traffic pattern:
    1. when the ceiling is less than 450 m (1500 ft); or
    2. When the ground visibility is less than 5km.
  3. VFR flights between sunset and sunrise, or such other period between sunset and sunrise as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, shall be operated in accordance with the conditions prescribed by SCAA authority.
  4. Unless authorized by the appropriate ATS authority, VFR flights shall not be operated:
    1. above FL 200;
    2. at transonic and supersonic speeds
  5. Authorization for VFR flights to operate above FL 290 shall not be granted in areas where a vertical separation minimum of 300 m (1 000 ft) is applied above FL 290.
  6. Except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except by permission from the appropriate authority, a VFR flight shall not be flown:
    1. over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or over an open- air assembly of persons at a height less than 300 m (1 000 ft) above the Highest obstacle within a radius of 600 m from the aircraft;
  7. Elsewhere than as specified in 6 i), at a height less than 150 m (500 ft) above the ground or water. Except where otherwise indicated in air traffic control clearances or specified by the appropriate ATS authority, VFR flights in level cruising flight when operated above 900 m (3 000 ft) from the ground or water, or a higher datum as specified by the appropriate ATS authority, shall be conducted at a cruising level appropriate to the track as specified in the tables of cruising levels in Appendix 3.VFR flights shall comply with the provisions of 3.6:
    1. when operated within Classes B, C and D airspace;
    2. when forming part of aerodrome traffic at controlled aerodromes; or
    3. When operated as special VFR flights.
  8. A VFR flight operating within or into areas, or along routes, designated by the appropriate ATS authority in accordance with the provisions of c) or d) of ICAO annex 2 shall maintain continuous air-ground, voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel of, and report its position as necessary to, the air traffic services unit providing flight information service.
  9. An aircraft operated in accordance with the visual flight rules which wishes to change to compliance with the instrument flight rules shall:
    1. if a flight plan was submitted, communicate the necessary changes to be affected to its current flight plan; or
    2. when so required by, submit a flight plan to the appropriate air traffic services unit and obtain a clearance prior to proceeding IFR when in controlled
  10. VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima
    2.1 VFR flights shall be operated under the following Visual Meteorological Conditions contained in table 3-1 of annex 2:
    Table 3-1 (see 4.1 above)
    Altitude bandAirspace classFlight visibilityDistance from cloud
    At and above 3 050m (10 000ft) AMSLA***BCDEFG8Km1 500m horizontally
    300m (1 000ft) vertically
    Below 3 050m (10 000ft) AMSL and above 900m (3 000ft) AMSL,or above
    300m (1 000ft) above terrain, whichever is higher
    A***BCDEFG5Km1 500m horizontally
    300m (1 000ft) vertically
    At and below 900m (3 000ft) AMSL, or 300m (1 000ft) above terrain,whichever is the higherA***BCDE5Km1 500m horizontally
    300m (1 000ft) vertically
    FG5KmClear of cloud and with the surface in sight
    (*) When the height of the transition altitude is lower than 3 500 M (10 000 FT) AMSL, FL 100 shall be used in lieu of 10 000 FT.
    (**) The VMCminima in class A airspace are included for guidance to pilots and do not imply acceptance of VFR flights in class A airspace
    (***) When so prescribed by the authority:
    (a) Flight visibilities reduced to not less than 1500M may be permitted for flights operating:

    at speeds that, in the prevailing visibility, will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision; or

    in circumstances in which the probability of encounters with other traffic would normally be low, e.g. in areas of low volume traffic and for aerial work at low levels.

    (b) Helicopters may be permitted to operate in less than 1500M but not less than 800M flight visibility, if maneuvered at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision.